Hybrid vigor, or heterosis, is a poorly understood process from a genetic standpoint, but it’s one that plant breeders exploit quite successfully. Simply put, they cross two varieties of a plant, then grow out the children called the F1 generation. If the cross is successful, it produces a hybrid plant which has superior characteristics to both of its parents, and often has stronger vigor — growing larger and faster than either parent. If you’ve ever had a mystery squash take over your compost pile and look like Audrey II, that was hybridization at work.
Hybrids are developed to have better yield, flavor, resistance to a particular pest or disease, and/or better performance in a certain climate. In many ways, this is similar to the reasons heirloom varieties are developed. Grandma’s special zucchini from years of saving seeds is a variety which performs uniquely well in her garden, but may do poorly in yours 100 miles away. (Or not.) Regional favorites, like banana peppers here in the South, do so well throughout the region that they become hugely popular and are often sold as commercial transplants. Most people don’t think of these as heirlooms, but they still are. And all heirlooms or newer open pollinated varieties start out as a hybrid cross.
Hybrids or “F1” cultivars are common in catalogs. These are not “genetically modified” any more than a mixed breed dog is, they are just crosses that are commercially produced in order to sell the children for seed. While you can’t save the next F2 generation for seed and expect them to reproduce true, sometimes hybrids are just the ticket for a vegetable that doesn’t want to do well for you.
I grow sweet peppers, bell or lamuyo, from hybrid. The open pollinated varieties simply don’t do well for me. However, hot peppers do. This year my pepper crop includes the African-American heirloom Fish Pepper with it’s lovely foliage and mildly hot taste, and experimenting with the new Islander F1 bell which is purple in it’s “green” stage.
Here’s the comparison of seedlings at the same age of development and grown under the same conditions:
The Fish Pepper will grow up just fine, but the hybrid is nearly ready for planting. Unfortunately, the weather is not, so the hybrids will just have to wait a bit longer.